Counterproductive Work Behavior
Current conceptualizations of employee job performance in the Western literature include task
performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior
(CWB). Limited research has investigated the cross-cultural generalizability of these categories
or their content. Convergence and divergence theorists present competing perspectives on the
cross-cultural applicability of Western management practices. The growing role of China in the
world economy makes this culture an important one to consider. The present study contributes to
job performance research in two important ways. First, Study 1 investigates whether CWB in
China is described by similar or different behaviors as in the Western literature. Second, Study 2
examines the importance that Chinese managers place on task performance, OCB, and CWB.
Findings indicate that Chinese managers are similar to North American managers in the content
of CWB. Furthermore, Chinese managers value all three groups of behaviors when rating overall
performance, placing greater emphasis on task performance and less emphasis on CWB than
North American managers. The results suggest that cross-cultural research on job performance
needs to take both convergence and divergence perspectives into account.