Counterproductive Work Behavior
incidents like "fraud organizational statistics" and "fraud organizational records" were grouped
together under "fraud organizational documents". After cleaning the 800 incidents, a total of 66
non-repeat behaviors remained. Table 1a presents an English version of these items and Table 1b
presents the Chinese version of these items. A process of back-translation was followed to
convert the items from Chinese to English in order to present them in Table 1a.
Insert Tables 1a and 1b about here
Table 2 presents an overview of the different forms of counterproductive work behavior
that have been reported in the Western literature. A large number of the CWB incidents
identified by the Chinese managers (see Tables 1a and 1b) appear to be similar to the CWB
incidents reported in the Western literature (Table 2).
Insert Table 2 about here
Step 1 of the study provides useful insight into the types of behaviors that are perceived to
be counterproductive by managers in China. Step 2 was undertaken to determine the
dimensionality of the CWB items.
Step 2: Uncovering the Dimensionality of Counterproductive Work Behavior in China
Participants for Step 2:
Participants for Step 2 were a different group of 30 Chinese managers enrolled in the
MBA program of a Canadian university. These participants are appropriate for this step because
they were all born, raised, and worked as managers in China prior to entering the MBA program
and had been studying in Canada for only three to four months when they completed the sorting