Counterproductive Work Behavior
university. The participants were emailed a link to the online survey two weeks prior to the
session. A cover letter, which stated that participation was on a voluntary basis and all responses
were confidential, served as part of the email. Completion of the survey indicated consent to
participate. The survey consisted of two sections and required approximately 30 minutes to
complete. In the first section subjects were presented with the 32 hypothetical job profiles and
asked to rate the overall job performance of the employee depicted within the profile on a five-
point Likert scale (1= low overall performance and 5 = high overall job performance).
Information about the tenure and work experience of the hypothetical employees was held
constant and included in the introduction of the survey. The second section of the survey
requested demographic and background information of the participants (e.g., age, education, race,
work experience, gender, occupational title, and prior experience in performance evaluation).
Sample and procedure: Chinese survey
Chinese sample. A total of 198 executives from 3 provinces in China volunteered to
participate in the study and provided useable complete surveys. This sample is independent from
the two samples that participated in Study 1 and the sample that participated in the development
of the Chinese survey (See Appendix for the information concerning a separate Chinese sample
that participated in Step Two of the development of job performance profile). The participants
were an average age of 33.5 years (SD = 5.68). Approximately 64.5% were male and 20.2% had
a master's degree.
Procedure. The Chinese participants were managers who enrolled in the Executive and
regular MBA programs at three Chinese universities located in Shanghai, Sichuan province, and
Zhejinag province. For the same reason presented in Study 1, we selected the three research sites
in pursuit of better representation of Chinese managers. Participation in the study was voluntary.