Counterproductive Work Behavior
Limitations and Future Direction
One limitation of this study is that the data collected in Study 2 were for only one job
(i.e., administrative assistant), a job that is low in complexity. This raises questions about
whether the pattern of findings reported here generalizes to other jobs. Hence, future research
should examine the generalizability of the findings across different jobs and different cultures.
George and Jones (1997) argued that contextual factors, such as industry, technology, and
job function, might play an important role in formatting OCB. Organ and Ryan's (1995) meta-
analysis, however, found no evidence for the moderating effects of such contextual factors. The
results of our study suggest that there are similarities as well as differences in managerial
conceptions of performance management cross-culturally. Moreover, what behaviors are
attributed to OCB or CWB in a given society are not only led by man-made contextual factors
such as cultural values, but also influenced by the physical or natural environments in which the
individuals or organizations are embedded. To explore all of the mysteries inherent in
performance and behaviors, our field has just started a first step in a journey of a thousand miles.