Spread spectrum clocking profiles.
High-Speed Measurement Techniques
Illustrative example of flight time (T
) showing flight time as function of
Example of oscilloscope bandwidth limiting resulting in an error of
measured clock to data skew. (a) actual signals; (b) measured on oscilloscope.
(a) Inadequate real-time sampling. (b) A random delayed trigger of a
repetitive signal can be used to reconstruct the waveform in equivalent time. (c) A
voltage glitch can be missed altogether if the maximum sampling rate is wider than the
How measurement resolution loss occurs when the sampling rate is
Vertical resolution loss due to inadequate sampling of high-frequency signal.
The probability distribution can be used to incorporate the effects of jitter on
Simplified example of a current-source TDR output stage, including
sampling input to oscilloscope.
Basic example of TDR response as seen at node A for test conditions. The
response illustrates the voltage and time relationship as the pulse propagates to
Simplified response illustrating the TDR response effect to capacitive and
inductive loading along a 50-
Typical lumped element response characteristics: (a) TDR input; (b)
lumped element; and (c) response.
TDR pulse characteristics that affect measurement resolution.
Cross-section view of two different PCB boards connected by a typical
connector along with the simple model.
The TDR response for two different edge rates illustrates the resolution
difference on the connector lumped elements.
Example of how the incident pulse characteristics will be replicated.
Examples of different hand-held type probes with varying ground loops.
This illustrates a typical TDR response difference between two different
handheld probes with different ground loops.
Lattice diagram of multiple discontinuities, resulting in the superposition of
Basic test setup for accurate impedance measurements using an airline